This review describes several state of the art advances made in the field of cancer
nanotechnology that bring the science closer to clinical realization for application
in disease treatment and diagnosis. For therapeutic delivery, in vivo strategies to
improve the biodistribution, tumor penetration, and cellular uptake of nanocarriers
are discussed, including the precise control of formulation and conjugation of
targeting agents. We highlight recently developed novel nanosolutions that
specifically address cancer metastasis. We also describe in detail the promising
use of nanotechnologies for in vitro diagnostics on tissue section samples, an
area that appears to be ready for clinical application in the near future.
Finally, we discuss emerging discoveries on the unique biophysical properties
of cancer that hold promise for paradigm shifts in future cancer diagnosis
and treatment strategies as this field continues to mature.